Corporate restructuring can be broadly divided into the following:-

Financial Restructuring – re-organization of capital, buy-back, CDR

Acquisitions, Mergers, Joint ventures and Strategic alliances

Technological restructuring – Alliances for technical expertise

Market Restructuring – Product / Market segments

Organizational Restructuring – Internal structures and Procedures



 A corporate action in which a company buys most, if not all, of the target company's ownership, stakes in order to assume control of the target firm. Acquisitions are often made as part of a company's growth strategy whereby it is more beneficial to take over an existing firm's operations and niche compared to expanding on its own. Acquisitions are often paid in cash, the acquiring company's stock or a combination of both.


 Combining of two or more companies whereby the identity of one or more is lost and the result is a single enterprise. One company is taken over by the other company and only the company taking over remains in existence.

 Merger is restricted to a case where the assets and liabilities of the companies get vested in another company, the company which is merged losing its identity and its shareholders becoming shareholders of the other company.


 Two or more existing companies amalgamate and a new company is formed. As such all existing companies amalgamating disappears and a new company comes into the existence. Amalgamation is an arrangement, whereby the assets and liabilities of two or more companies become vested in another company (which may or may not be one of the original companies) and which would have as its shareholders substantially, all the shareholders of the amalgamating companies.


 It is a business strategy in which a single business is broken into components, either to operate on their own, to be sold or to be dissolved. A demerger allows a large company, such as a conglomerate, to split off its various brands to invite or prevent an acquisition, to raise capital by selling off components that are no longer part of the business's core product line, or to create separate legal entities to handle different operations.

 Slump Sale:

 Transfer of a whole or part of business concern as a going concern; lock, stock and barrel.


Divestitures: Sale of a segment of Company to outsider for cash / securities. Spin off: Holding Company distributes its own shares in controlled subsidiary company to its shareholders on pro-rata basis as a dividend in non cash form.

 Equity carved out:Only some shareholding of subsidiary company is sold out to publicand parent company continues to hold control over subsidiary company.

 Split off:Shareholders of parent company get share in the subsidiary company inexchange of their shares in parent company.

 Split up:Parent company ceases to exist and shares are divided into two parts.

 PARTIAL DEMERGER: Part of undertaking / division of existing company is separated and transferred to new company. Existing company remains in existence.

 COMPLETE DEMERGER: Existing company is dissolved by passing Special Resolution. All divisions are transferred to new companies. Shareholders of dissolved company are issued shares in new company in pre-determined exchange ratio.


 1)                 DEMERGED COMPANY / RESULTING COMPANY: A Demerger results in the transfer by a company of one or more of its undertakings to another company. The Company whose undertaking is transferred is called the DEMERGED COMPANY.  The Company (or the companies) to which the undertaking is transferred is referred to as the


 According to Sub-section (19AAA) of Section 2 of the Income-tax Act, 1961, demerged company means the company whose undertaking is transferred, pursuant to a demerger, to a resulting company.

 According to Sub-section (41A) of Section 2 of the Income-tax Act, 1961,resulting company means one or more companies (including a wholly owned subsidiary thereof) to which the undertaking of the demerged company is transferred in a demerger and, the resulting company in consideration of such transfer of undertaking, issues shares to the shareholders of the demerged company and includes any authority or body or local authority or public sector company or a company established, constituted or formed as a result of demerger.

2) APPOINTED DATE: It is the date on which assets and liabilities of the transferor company vest in and stand transferred to the transferee company. Accounts on the appointed date form the basis for valuation of shares and determination of share exchange ratio. Appointed date is relevant for the purpose of assessment of income of the transferor and transferee companies.  The appointed date signifies the basic condition to be satisfied before a restructuring exercise is recognized as demerger for the purposes of tax laws.

The other way of looking at Appointed Date is to consider the date as the demarking line to rearrange the affairs of the companies before the date so that, thereafter there arises no need to revisit as to which of the assets have to be kept with the demerged company and that with the resulting company. This will cover tangible, intangible assets as well as human resources, their retirement dues etc. The assets will also include assets held on lease, hire-purchase, assets used by the executives and key personnel in their residences etc. If the demerger is followed by any infusion of fresh capital by foreign partners in the resulting company, then every single item of asset, liability, key personnel etc. will become very important and assume lot of significance and lack of proper planning in the initial days will create unavoidable issues arising at a later date. In the case of liabilities, it is better to record all the liabilities in the books of accounts so that the split is done in the proper way. This is especially true for contingent liabilities.

 3) EFFECTIVE DATE:It is the date on which scheme is Complete & Effective, i.e certified copy of the High Court order is filed with Registrar of Company or the last of the approvals obtained. From the effective date demerger becomes effective and Transferor Company stands changed/dissolved.

 4) RECORD DATE: It is the cut out date on which details of owners or share holders for the Companies are taken for the purpose of Corporate action.

 5) EXCHANGE RATIO: The valuer determines the value of demerged undertaking and the value of the original company and in the process after considering all the relevant data fixes the exchange ratio which later is incorporated in the Scheme of Arrangement placed before the High Courts for its approval.

Posted 2 years, 7 months ago by Rahul Rai

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